James Diamond, MD
1. Bhatt NS, Al-Shirawi NM, Diamond JG. Krypton laser photocoagulation of peripapillary choroidal neovascular membrane. Ophthalmic Surgery & Lasers. 1999;30:56-8.
The Macular Photocoagulation Study criteria require that at least 1.5 clock hours of temporal peripapillary retina be spared when treating choroidal neovascular membrane in that location. The authors successfully treated peripapillary choroidal neovascular membrane involving temporal 180 degrees with the krypton laser without any loss of visual acuity and central field.
2. Bhatt NS, Diamond JG, Jalali S, Das T. Choroidal neovascular membrane. [Review] [115 refs]. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 1998;46:67-80.
Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the current concepts and the management strategy from a clinician's viewpoint. [References: 115].
3. Bhatt NS, Newsome DA, Fenech T, et al. Experimental transplantation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells on collagen substrates. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1994;117:214-21.
We studied the use of human retinal pigment epithelial cells cultured on a collagen support as a potential transplantation therapy to replace diseased or damaged retinal pigment epithelium. Using a transvitreal approach, we transplanted human retinal pigment epithelial cells attached to either a sheet of noncross-linked or cross-linked type I collagen into the subretinal space of New Zealand white rabbits, whose eyes lack pigment. Animals were killed after six weeks, and the eyes were fixed for light microscopy. The results demonstrated that, in eyes receiving the noncross-linked collagen support, a layer of pigmented donor retinal pigment epithelium was visible within the subretinal space, with a normal-appearing retina and no evidence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy or graft rejection. We believe this method may be applicable to replace dysfunctional retinal pigment epithelial cells in humans.
4. Maxwell DPJ, Diamond JG, May DR. Surgical wound defects associated with endophthalmitis. Ophthalmic Surgery. 1994;25:157-61.
Twenty-five consecutive cases of culture-proven postsurgical endophthalmitis were evaluated. Patients underwent wound revision and pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotic and steroid infusion (gentamicin 8 micrograms/cc, clindamycin 9 micrograms/cc, dexamethasone 8 micrograms/cc) and injection (gentamicin 100 micrograms plus clindamycin 200 micrograms [and amphotericin 5 micrograms in one case] and dexamethasone 800 to 1000 micrograms). Twenty cases demonstrated wound defects (eg, wound gape/malapposition, abscess/tissue necrosis, suture dehiscence, leak, vitreous wick). Culture-proven isolates included both gram negative and positive bacteria and fungi. Visual acuity improved in 18 of the 20 (90%) gram positive cases. Ten of the 17 (59%) patients in the Staphylococcus epidermidis subgroup achieved a visual acuity of 20/50 or better. Surgical wound defects are frequently associated with culture-proven endophthalmitis. When vitrectomy is included as part of the treatment regimen, we recommend meticulous inspection and closure of any defective surgical wounds associated with endophalmitis.
5. Brent BD, Gonce M, Diamond JG. Pars plana vitrectomy for complications of retinal arterial macroaneurysms--a case series. Ophthalmic Surgery. 1993;24:534-6.
Retinal arterial macroaneurysms are distinct vascular lesions with a typically benign course. Laser treatment to these vascular lesions is controversial, and has been limited to cases of persistent macular edema. Devastating vision loss can occur, however, through vitreous or subretinal hemorrhage. We describe eight cases of retinal arterial macroaneurysms associated with subretinal or vitreous hemorrhage requiring pars plana vitrectomy. Final visual acuities ranged from 20/20 to 20/400 at most recent follow up. Until reliable indicators of rupture are identified, we suggest consideration of laser photocoagulation to clinically active, identifiable retinal arterial macroaneurysms within the macula.
6. Newsome DA, Oliver PD, Deupree DM, Miceli MV, Diamond, JG. Zinc uptake by primate retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. Current Eye Research. 1992;11:213-7.
We studied zinc uptake by nonhuman primate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid, using 65Zn as a probe. With intravenously administered 65ZnCl2, virtually all detectable tracer was lost from the plasma after 20 hours but the pigment epithelium-choroid showed prominent uptake and retention. Plasma concentrations of oral 65ZnO remained high 20 hours after feeding. Uptake and retention of orally administered 65Zn as 65ZnO from the bloodstream by the RPE/choroid was avid in both young and old animals. Excretion in urine and feces was minimal. All pigmented ocular tissues took up and retained 65Zn. A survey of total zinc content of human and nonhuman primate ocular tissues showed that the pigmented tissues had consistently higher concentrations of zinc. Our results demonstrate for the first time direct uptake and retention of zinc from the blood by primate RPE and other ocular tissues.
7. Hessburg TP, Maxwell DP, Diamond JG. Endophthalmitis associated with sutureless cataract surgery [letter] [see comments]. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1991;109:1499.
8. Maxwell DPJ, Brent BD, Diamond JG, Wu L. Effect of intravitreal dexamethasone on ocular histopathology in a rabbit model of endophthalmitis [see comments]. Ophthalmology. 1991;98:1370-5.
The histologic and clinical effect of intravitreal dexamethasone was studied in a rabbit model of experimentally induced gentamicin sensitive Staphylococcal epidermidis endophthalmitis. The study compared four treatment groups: vitrectomy alone (group I), vitrectomy plus intravitreal gentamicin (group II), vitrectomy plus intravitreal gentamicin and dexamethasone (group III), and intravitreal gentamicin and dexamethasone without vitrectomy (group IV). All eyes treated with dexamethasone, with or without vitrectomy, exhibited less clinical and histologic manifestations of inflammation. This study suggests that suppression of inflammation through the use of intravitreal dexamethasone leads to preservation of ocular architecture with potentially improved retinal function and visual benefit.
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