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Philosophy

Philosophy


 

ANNOUNCEMENTS

The Tulane Philosophy Club

Faculty Seminars at the Murphy Institute


Judeo-Christan Lecture Series,
Rogers Memorial Chapel


The department is currently seeking applications for
two tenure-track positions for Fall 2015:

Position #1. AOS: Ethics/political philosophy, with the
ability to teach undergraduate applied ethics and
political philosophy

Position #2. AOS: Philosophy of mind/ psychology, with
the ability to teach logic

For more information, see our Philjobs ad.


The word "philosophy" is derived from the Greek meaning "love of wisdom."

Along with mathematics, philosophy is one of the two oldest intellectual disciplines and it has always been a central component in the university curriculum.

There are many areas of philosophical enquiry. Perhaps the easiest way to begin to understand what philosophy is all about is by considering the kinds of questions which prompt philosophical reflection. (For undergraduate degree requirements, please see our major and minor page.)

Three of the most important kinds of questions that philosophers ask, along with a number of examples, are as follows:

  • Questions about life and how we should treat each other:
    These include: What is the good life? How should we treat each other? Is ethical truth relative to a culture? What political system should we have? Why are liberty and democracy important? Questions like these are considered by political philosophy and ethics (or moral philosophy).
  • Questions about the ultimate nature of the world:
    These include: Is there a God? Is everything made of matter? Are minds separate from bodies? Do people have free will? What is it for one event to cause another? These questions fall under the jurisdiction of metaphysics.
  • Questions about what we know and how we know it:
    What is knowledge? Could the things we believe about the world be radically wrong (might you really be brain in a vat on Alpha Centauri, being stimulated by a mad neuro-scientist to have the sensory experiences you in fact have)? Is religious belief rational? This is the domain of epistemology.

In philosophy courses, questions like these may be approached directly or through the writings of influential thinkers of the past (for details, look at our courses page).

One of the most distinctive things about philosophy is that philosophers are concerned not just with stating particular views. They attempt to develop reasons for their views by giving arguments. So, in addition to looking at particular issues, philosophers have always been interested in logic and the nature of reason. As a result, most philosophy students develop a keen sense of how to think well.



Why Major in Philosophy?

You're kind of interested in philosophy; maybe you've even taken a couple of classes in philosophy and they were fun. Now comes the $64, 000 question: "But what can I do with it?"

Many people (perhaps you're one of them) believe that if you spend too much time doing philosophy as an undergraduate, you will lessen your chances of success on the job market when you graduate. This is a myth! Philosophy graduates flourish in all kinds of professions. Indeed, when it comes to the standardized tests that are required for professional schools, there is detailed evidence that philosophers perform extremely well.

In a study conducted in the 1980s for the National Institute of Education, Clifford Adelman investigated the percentage by which majors in 29 different fields scored above or below the mean scores of all test-takers in the GMAT (business school), the LSAT (law school), and the verbal and quantitative GRE (graduate school). The bottom line for a typical year (1982): Philosophy majors came in second (mathematics majors were first).

  • In the GMAT, only mathematics majors outperformed philosophy majors.
  • In the LSAT, philosophers came in third behind economists and mathematicians.
  • In the verbal GRE, philosophers came in first, even though 1982 was their worst year in the period Adelman looked at.
  • In the quantitative GRE, philosophers and economists were the only humanities and social science majors to beat the mean (however, economists and mathematicians flopped on the verbal GRE, while physicists, the top performers on the quantitative GRE, did somewhat better).

Adelman was puzzled by his results, but after thinking about them came to the following conclusion:

Undergraduates who major in professional and occupational fields consistently underperform those who major in traditional arts and sciences fields...Students who major in a field characterized by formal thought, structural relationships, abstract models, symbolic languages and deductive reasoning consistently outperform others on these examinations.

And it goes without saying, of course, that students who have been trained in these abilities and disciplines are also better equipped than others to excel in the business world. Adelman's study, together with employment and salary data for philosophy majors, led David Hoekema, past Executive Director of the American Philosophical Association, to write the following:

It is no denigration of the value of learning for its own sake to identify the more concrete rewards of studying the humanities. Having done so, we can respond constructively to student worries about the market value of their college degree. "Why would you want to be a business or education major?" We may well ask, "Why not study something practical, like philosophy?"

Tulane University, Department of Philosophy, 105 Newcomb Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118 504-865-5305 philosophy@tulane.edu