This Code applies to all undergraduate students, full-time, and part-time, in Tulane University.
The integrity of the Newcomb-Tulane College is based on the absolute honesty of the
entire community in all academic endeavors. As part of the Tulane University
community, undergraduate students have certain responsibilities regarding work that
forms the basis for the evaluation of their academic achievement. Students are
expected to be familiar with these responsibilities at all times. No member of the
university community should tolerate any form of academic dishonesty because the
scholarly community of the university depends on the willingness of both instructors and
students to uphold the Code of Academic Conduct. When a violation of the Code of
Academic Conduct is observed it is the duty of every member of the academic
community who has evidence of the violation to take action. Students should take steps
to uphold the code by reporting any suspected offense to the instructor or the Associate
Dean of Newcomb-Tulane College. Students should under no circumstances tolerate
any form of academic dishonesty.
In all work submitted for academic credit, students are expected to represent
themselves honestly. The presence of a student's name on any work submitted in
completion of an academic assignment is considered to be an assurance that the work
and ideas are the result of the student's own intellectual effort, stated in his or her own
words, and produced independently, unless clear and explicit acknowledgment of the
sources for the work and ideas is included (with the use of quotation marks when
quoting someone else’s words). This principle applies to papers, tests, homework
assignments, artistic productions, laboratory reports, computer programs, and other
All new students will be informed of this Code. Lack of familiarity with the code or with
the precise application of its principles to any specific instance is not an excuse for
noncompliance with it.
ARTICLE I: DEFINITIONS
The terms below are used throughout this document and are defined as follows:
1. “Accused Student” means any student accused of violating the Code.
2. “Appellate Panel” means any person or persons from the Honor Board
authorized by the Associate Dean to consider an appeal of an Honor Board
hearing panel’s determination or from the sanctions imposed in a particular
3. “Chairperson” means the chair of an Honor Board hearing panel. The
Chairperson must be an officer of the honor board.
4. “Code” means this Code of Academic Conduct.
5. “Associate Dean” means the College Official authorized by the Dean of
Newcomb-Tulane College to coordinate Honor Board proceedings.
6. “College” means the Newcomb-Tulane College of Tulane University.
7. “College Official” means any person employed by the College to perform
administrative or professional responsibilities.
8. “Complainant” means any person who submits a charge alleging that a student
violated the Code.
9. “Dean” means the Dean of the Newcomb-Tulane College.
10. “Honor Board” means those persons who may from time to time be asked to
serve on an Honor Board panel. The Honor Board shall consist of approximately
forty (40) students and twenty-five (25) faculty members from the Schools. It
shall be the goal of the Dean of the College to select representation proportional
to enrollment from the College and the Schools (as defined below) whenever
possible. The size of the pool of members can be increased or decreased at the
discretion of the Dean of the College. The Dean of the College shall have the
right to remove any member of the Honor Board.
11. “Honor Board Hearing Panel” means any person or persons authorized by the
Associate Dean to determine in a particular situation whether a student has
violated the Code and to recommend sanctions that may be imposed when a
rules violation has been committed.
12. “Instructor” means any person who conducts classroom or teaching activities for
Tulane University, or who is otherwise considered by the university to be a
member of its faculty.
13. “Member of the University Community” means any person who is a student,
instructor, College Official, or any other person employed by Tulane University.
A person’s status shall be determined by the Associate Dean of the College.
14. “Schools” means the Schools of Architecture, Business, Liberal Arts, Public
Health, and Science and Engineering, and Continuing Studies.
15. “Student” means all persons enrolled at the College pursuing undergraduate
degrees. Persons who withdraw after allegedly violating the Code or who have
been notified of their acceptance for admission are considered “students.”
ARTICLE II: CODE AUTHORITY
1. The Associate Dean shall determine the composition of Honor Board hearing
panels and appellate panels, as well as which Honor Board panel and appellate
panel shall be authorized to hear each matter.
2. The Associate Dean shall develop procedures for the conduct of Honor Board
hearing panels and apellate panel hearings that are not inconsistent with
provisions of the Code.
3. Decisions made by an Honor Board panel and/or Associate Dean shall be final,
pending the normal appeal process.
4. Allegations of harassment shall be addressed under Tulane University’s
5. Student members of the Honor Board shall elect officers from their number on an
annual basis, and shall work with the Associate Dean to provide training to Honor
ARTICLE III: PROSCRIBED CONDUCT
1. Jurisdiction of the Code
The Code shall apply to academic conduct of each student from the time of
application for admission through the actual awarding of a degree, even though
academic conduct may occur before classes begin or after classes end, as well
as during the academic year and even if the academic conduct is not discovered
until after a degree is awarded. The Code shall apply to a student’s academic
conduct even if the student withdraws from school while a disciplinary matter is
2. Violations of the Code
Any student found to have committed or to have attempted to commit the
following misconduct is subject to the disciplinary sanctions outlined in this Code.
The following are defined as violations:
i. Cheating -- Giving, receiving, or using, or attempting to give,
receive, or use unauthorized assistance, information, or study aids
in academic work, or preventing or attempting to prevent another
from using authorized assistance, information, or study aids
Consulting with any persons other than the course professor and
teaching assistants regarding a take-home examination between
the time the exam is distributed and the time it is submitted by the
student for grading. Students should assume any exam is closed
book; they may not consult books, notes, or any other reference
material unless explicitly permitted to do so by the instructor of the
ii. Plagiarism -- Unacknowledged or falsely acknowledged
presentation of another person's ideas, expressions, or original
research as one's own work. Such an act often gives the reader the
impression that the student has written or thought something that
he or she has in fact borrowed from another. Any paraphrasing or
quotation must be appropriately acknowledged. Plagiarism also
includes the unacknowledged use of materials prepared by another
person or agency engaged in the selling of term papers or other
academic materials. Please consult Acknowledging Sources In
Academic Work, a copy of which may be obtained in the Newcomb-
Tulane College Dean’s Office or the Center for Academic Advising,
for more information on documenting sources.
iii. Fabrication -- Submission of contrived or altered information in any
iv. False Information – Furnishing false information to any University
official, instructor, or Tulane University office relating to any
academic assignment or issue.
v. Unauthorized collaboration -- Collaboration not explicitly allowed
by the instructor to obtain credit for examinations or course
vi. Multiple submission -- Presentation of a paper or other work for
credit in two distinct courses without prior approval by both
vii. Sabotage -- Destroying or damaging another student's work, or
otherwise preventing such work from receiving fair graded
viii. Unfair advantage -- Any behavior disallowed by an instructor that
gives an advantage over other fellow students in an academic
ix. Facilitation of academic dishonesty -- Knowingly helping or
attempting to help another student violate any provision of the
x. Tampering with academic records -- Misrepresenting, tampering
with, or attempting to tamper with any portion of a student's
xi. Improper disclosure -- Failure of an honor board member or
participant in an honor board hearing to maintain strict
confidentiality concerning the identity of students accused of honor
Article IV: RESPONSIBILITIES
All instructors shall foster an environment that encourages adherence to the
principles of honesty and integrity. Each instructor shall give specific directions
concerning the nature of examinations and assignments, stating, for example,
when collaboration is permissible.
Each instructor shall be familiar with the principles and procedures of the Code.
He or she shall report all suspected violations so that, for example, repeat
offenders can be detected. Each instructor shall also appear and testify when
called upon by the honor board.
All students are expected to adhere to the principles of the Code. All academic
work must be the result of the student's own efforts, except when collaboration
has been explicitly allowed. If a student is unsure how a particular assignment is
affected by the Code, it is his or her responsibility to consult the instructor. This
applies not only to the student's own behavior but also to the behavior of others.
ARTICLE V: REPORTING VIOLATIONS AND PREPARING FOR A HEARING
1. Reporting Suspected Violations
Any member of the university community may file charges against a student for
violations of the Code. A charge shall be prepared in writing and directed to the
Associate Dean. Any charge should be submitted as soon as possible after the
Complainant becomes aware of the relevant events or actions, preferably within
five (5) working days of the alleged violation.
2. Copy of the Charges
If a violation of the Code is suspected, the Associate Dean will provide the accused student with a copy of the formal charge in writing: the nature and
occasion of the alleged violation, the name of the complainant, copies of the
documents pertinent to the allegation and a copy of the code within five (5)
working days or as soon as practical. The Dean’s office sends this packet of
material by U.S. Mail to the accused student’s local address as listed in Tulane’s
Student Information System (off campus addresses) and delivers it to the
Campus Post Office to be deposited in the accused student’s mailbox (on
3. Associate Dean’s Initial Review
If alleged violation of the code has been reported, the Associate Dean shall
review written the charge to confirm that the charge being made falls within the
scope of this code and that all documents have been prepared according to its
provisions. This review shall take place within two (2) working days of the
Associate Dean’s receipt of the charge.
If, in the considered opinion of the Associate Dean, the charge is improper and
should not be taken to a hearing, that decision shall be communicated to the
complainant, who retains the right to have the Associate Dean’s decision
reviewed by the Dean of the Newcomb-Tulane College.
4. Accused Student’s Review
If the charge is brought to a hearing, the accused student will be allowed five (5)
working days to prepare his or her case; an extension to this period will be
granted by the Associate Dean if necessary.
5. Administrative Disposition
If the accused student (or students) in the case informs the Associate Dean that
she or he plans to plead guilty, the accused student may waive the hearing and
the penalty for violating the Code will be a grade of WF assigned by the
Associate Dean with no honor board probation, The student must also sign a
statement acknowledging the violation and the penalty, and in the case of a Code
violation involving multiple students, the signed statement will become part of the
record in the hearing for any of the other students that do not plead guilty. A
student may elect this option only if he or she has no prior convictions and if the
violation, in the opinion of the Associate Dean, would not be likely to result in
suspension from Tulane if the student were to appear before a hearing panel.
Administrative disposition of the case will appear in the student’s permanent
record as a violation of the Code.
The officer who will chair the hearing shall consult with the complainant and the
accused student, if necessary, to ascertain what witnesses should be called in
the hearing, to make sure that all concerned understand the workings of the
7. Right to an Advisor
The accused student has the right to be assisted by an advisor selected from a
list of faculty who previously have served on the Honor Board. The Associate
Dean will provide the accused student with a list of potential advisors. The
advisor may not have an attorney-client relationship with the person advised.
The accused student is responsible for presenting his or her own information,
and therefore, an advisor is not permitted to speak or to participate directly in any
Honor Board hearing. A student who selects an advisor should insure that the
advisor’s schedule allows attendance at the scheduled date and time of the
hearing because delays will not normally be allowed due to the scheduling
conflicts of an advisor.
ARTICLE VI: COMPOSITION AND JURISDICTION OF THE HONOR BOARD
AND HEARING PANELS
1. Composition of the Honor Board
The Honor Board is composed of persons selected by the procedure below who
may from time to time be asked to serve on an Honor Board panel. The Honor
Board shall consist of approximately forty (40) students and twenty-five (25)
instructor members from the Schools. It shall be the goal of the Dean of the
College to select representation proportional to enrollment from the College and
the Schools whenever possible. The size of the pool of members can be
increased or decreased at the discretion of the Dean of the College. The Dean of
the College shall have the right to remove any member of the Honor Board.
2. Selecting New Members and Officers of the Honor Board
a. Selection of Students
i. New student members of the Honor Board shall be chosen as needed
by the continuing members of the Honor Board; these students shall
serve until graduation. Interruption of residency, or until resigning
their positions. The board will strive to achieve approximate
representation across student classes and schools.
ii No student who has been convicted of a violation of the Code may
serve on the honor board.
b. Selection of Student Officers
Six student members the board shall serve one-year terms as officers of the
board. Selection of the officers will be made each spring by vote of the
continuing members of the board. The officers of the honor board may
convene the board to review procedures, conduct training and other official
c. Selection of Instructor Members
Instructor members of the board shall be chosen by their schools and will will determine the number of members needed from each school on an annual
3. Composition of Honor Board Hearing Panels
Panels shall be constituted from five (5) members of the Honor Board - three
students and two instructors whenever possible. One of the three students must
be an officer of the board. If the accused student is in a school, one of the
instructor members will be from that school, whenever possible. The panel shall
hear cases and determine the guilt or lack of guilt of the accused student(s), and
shall recommend appropriate penalties for implementation by the Dean or
designate of the Dean
4. Honor Board Hearing Panel Procedure
The Honor Board shall determine the rules of procedure for its hearing panels,
subject to the approval of the Dean of the Newcomb-Tulane College.
5. Honor Board Hearing Panel Voting Rights
Students and instructors are voting members of the Honor Board hearing panel
and each member has one (1) vote.
ARTICLE VII: HONOR BOARD HEARINGS
1. Purpose of Hearings
The purpose of the hearing is to provide the student with an opportunity to be
heard and to supply the Honor Board hearing panel with the relevant information
necessary to reach a decision. It should be noted that a hearing is not a legal
procedure and as such, formal rules of process, procedure, and/or technical rules
of evidence, such as are applied in criminal or civil court, are not used in Code
proceedings. Polygraph tests are not admissible as evidence.
2. Hearing Date
The Honor Board will make every effort to process cases in a timely manner. An
officer will convene a Honor Board hearing panel to review the charges brought
against the student. Every effort will be made to convene that hearing within ten
(10) working days after the accused student has been apprised of the charges.
3. End of the Semester Offenses
If the offense is reported at the end of the semester, the hearing normally will be
postponed until the start of the next semester. If the accused student requests a
hearing at the end of a semester and an officer and a sufficient number of board
members with appropriate representation from the student’s school are
unavailable to hear a case, the Associate Dean may form an ad hoc panel
composed of two instructor members (one from the student’s school) and three
students. If the case must be heard by an ad hoc panel, it should be heard as soon as possible and no later than fourteen working days after the end of final
exams when feasible. If more than one student is accused in the same case and
at least one of the accused students desires to postpone the hearing, it shall be
deferred until the beginning of the next semester, unless any of the accused
students is expected to graduate before the hearing is to take place or will be on
a study abroad program in the fall semester.
4. Failure to Appear
If an accused student, having been notified, does not appear before an Honor
Board hearing panel, the information in support of the charges shall be presented
and the hearing shall proceed.
If a person is called before a Honor Board hearing panel, the person is obligated
to be completely honest. It is every member of the university community’s duty to
ensure that the principles of the Code are upheld and that the procedures are
6. Procedures for Honor Board Hearing Panel
a. Honor Board hearings shall be conducted in private.
b. An officer of the board shall preside over each Honor Board hearing panel.
He or she shall see that a recording is made of all testimony. The officer
shall notify all participants of the date and time of the hearing within five (5)
working days after the accused student has been notified, when feasible.
The officer shall submit a written report of the hearing, accompanied by a
recording of all testimony and a copy of all evidence presented, to the Dean
of the Newcomb-Tulane College within two (2) working days after the
c. There shall be a single verbatim record of all Honor Board testimony.
Deliberations of an Honor Board panel shall not be recorded. The record
shall be the property of the College. The record shall be retained by the
College only until all appeals have been exhausted or a determination has
otherwise become final, or such longer period as may be required by law,
rule or regulation.
d. The accused student has the right to be assisted by an advisor selected from
a list of faculty who previously have served on the Honor Board. The
Associate Dean will provide the accused student with a list of potential
advisors. The advisor must be a member of the university community and
may not have an attorney-client relationship with the person advised. The
accused student is responsible for presenting his or her own information, and
therefore, advisors are not permitted to speak or to participate directly in any
Honor Board hearing. A student who selects an advisor should insure that
the advisor’s schedule allows attendance at the scheduled date and time of the hearing because delays will not normally be allowed due to the
scheduling conflicts of an advisor.
e. Pertinent records, documents, and written statements may be accepted as
information for consideration by an Honor Board hearing panel at the
discretion of the chairperson.
f. All procedural questions are subject to the final decision of the chairperson of
the Honor Board hearing panel. Formal rules of process, procedure, and/or
technical rules of evidence, such as are applied in criminal or civil court, are
not used in Code proceedings.
g. At the beginning of the hearing, the chairperson shall read the charges
against the accused student. Normally the complainant will give testimony
first, followed by supporting witnesses, followed by the accused student and
supporting witnesses, and then by other witnesses, if any. Any of the
preceding may be recalled for further testimony if clarification is necessary.
The chairperson shall inform the accused student and any witnesses of the
following before testimony begins:
i. False testimony given in a hearing is a violation of the Code of
ii. All testimony given in an honor board hearing is to be held in the
iii. All witnesses must be called to give substantive testimony rather
than as character witnesses.
h. The accused student may make a statement before the Honor Board,
examine or dispute any evidence, make no statement, or decline to respond
to any questions.
i. The complainant, the accused student, and any witnesses will be brought
before the hearing panel independently of one another to give testimony. If
the complainant and/or accused student in the hearing cannot be present,
written testimony will be accepted.
j. After hearing all evidence and witnesses in the case, the panel will vote to
determine the guilt or lack of guilt of the student based on whether it is more
likely than not that the accused student violated the Code.; a majority is
necessary for a finding of guilty. All members vote, and abstentions will be
counted as votes of not guilty. No member of the panel will be allowed to
vote unless he or she has been present to hear all the evidence in the case.
k. If the accused student is judged
l. If the accused student is found guilty of violating the Code, the Honor Board
hearing panel will recommend sanctions to the Dean of Newcomb-Tulane
Sanctions for violations of the Code are imposed on the basis of the infraction
and any history of repeated violations by the student. In all cases of findings of
guilt, the offense is noted permanently in the academic record of the student. The
appropriate sanctions to be recommended by the Honor Board hearing panel to
the Dean of Newcomb-Tulane College for a guilty verdict should include:
a. Probation, signifying that a student is not in good standing for a specified
length of time and a student cannot graduate while on probation.
b. Lowering of a grade to zero, for an assignment or test; the honor board
may stipulate that if a student chooses to withdraw from a course after
receiving a grade sanction for an honor code violation, the student's
record will reflect a grade of "WF" for the course in which the sanction was
c. A grade of "WF" in a course;
d. Suspension from the University for a period of time;
e. Expulsion from the university.
f. Admission to or a degree awarded by the College or any School within
Tulane University may be revoked for violation of the Code.
g. More than one of the sanctions listed above may be imposed for any
Students should be aware that infractions of the Code of Academic Conduct
usually warrant a grade of a “WF” for the course and honor board probation of
two semesters for a first offense. A conviction for a second offense warrants, and
typically results in, expulsion from the university. In addition, the university
reserves the right to withhold institutional support from a student's application for
graduate or professional school if violations of the Code are noted in the
student's academic record.
8. The Dean’s Review
The Dean of the Newcomb-Tulane College or the Dean’s designate shall review
all pertinent materials. If the Dean/designate disagrees with the recommended
sanction, he or she must provide the panel with the reasons for disagreement.
The Dean/designate, having reviewed all pertinent information, shall notify in
writing the student, the instructor, and the chair of the hearing panel of his or her decision within three working days after receipt of the hearing panel's report
ARTICLE VIII: DUTIES OF THE DEAN
a. The Dean of the College shall maintain a permanent record of all honor
board convictions involving their students. The record shall include a copy
of all evidence submitted to the hearing panel, the report of the chair of the
hearing panel to the dean, and the dean's final action. Copies of the latter
two documents shall be maintained in separate, permanent records of the
honor board. The tape recording of the hearing should be preserved only
until all appeals have been exhausted or such longer period as may be
required by law, rule or regulation.
b. From the permanent record, the dean shall note in the college records any
conviction and the sanction imposed. This information shall be available
only to that student unless the student waives his or her right of exclusive
access under the provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy
c. Access to the tape recording and other information concerning a case
during the process of adjudication shall be reserved for members of the
hearing panel or, if necessary, the appeal committee. The right to borrow
these materials or copies of them from the dean's records shall be
restricted to the honor board officer who chaired the hearing, the dean,
and the honor board officer chairing the appeal committee. The original or
one copy of all documents shall remain in the dean's records at all times.
ARTICLE IX: APPEALS
1. Appeal Process
a. A student may appeal a decision of the Honor Board hearing panel or the
Dean on one or both of the following grounds: procedural error, new
i. Procedural error is defined as any violation of the procedures
stated in this Code.
ii. New evidence is defined as testimony or documentation not
available at the time of the original hearing that is directly relevant
to the charges heard during the hearing and which merits
consideration in light of its potential effect upon the outcome.
b. An accused student who wishes to request an appeal of a decision of the
Honor Board hearing panel may do so by notifying in writing the Associate Dean within seven (7) working days after being notified of the Dean's
decision, except when the appeal is on the basis of new evidence, in
which case more time may be granted by the Associate Dean. Students
with new evidence may, with the permission of the Associate Dean, listen
to a copy of the tape recording of the original hearing in the presence of
an officer of the honor board. Access to the tape recording will not be
provided to any other individual.
c. The appeal document must be in writing and must provide evidence of
substantial procedural error or new evidence.
2. Appellate Panel
a. The Associate Dean of the Newcomb-Tulane College shall convene a
panel of three members of the Honor Board to form an appellate panel to
review the student’s request for appeal, including an officer of the board,
who will serve as the chair, and one other student and one instructor
member of the board where the students and instructor member can be
from any school.
b. No member who heard the original case may serve on the appellate
panel. If this panel of three decides that an appeal should be granted, this
panel will conduct the appeal hearing immediately.
c. The appellate panel may uphold the original decision or
set the decision aside and refer the case back to the Honor Board for a
3. Appellate Board Hearing Procedures
a. An appellate hearing is not a retrial but rather a careful examination of
points raised in a letter of appeal and is conducted in private.
b. Persons other than the three-member appellate panel who may be
present during an appellate hearing include:
i. the accused student, who may state his or her reasons for appeal,
ii. material witnesses, who may appear if the accused is presenting
new evidence, and
iii. the chair of the hearing panel that originally heard the case shall
summarize the case as heard by the panel and address the
grounds for the appeal.
c. The complainant in the original case may not be present.
d. All information presented or discussed at an appellate panel hearing shall
e. All members of the appellate panel present for the appellate hearing shall receive a copy of all pertinent information and a copy of the student's
document of appeal.
f. The chair shall ensure a tape recording shall be made of all testimony and
placed in the files of the Dean of the Newcomb-Tulane College. The
record shall be the property of the College. The record shall be retained by
the College only until all appeals have been exhausted or a determination
has otherwise become final, or such longer period as may be required by
law, rule or regulation.
g. An accused student shall present his or her document of appeal and may
call material witnesses if new evidence is submitted.
h. The chair shall inform the accused student and any witnesses of the
following before testimony begins.
i. False testimony given in a hearing is a violation of the honor code.
ii. All testimony given in a hearing is to be held in the strictest
iii. All witnesses must be called to give substantive testimony rather
than as character witnesses.
i. Pertinent records, documents, and written statements may be accepted as
information for consideration by an appellate panel at the discretion of the
j. All procedural questions are subject to the final decision of the chairperson
of the appellate panel. Formal rules of process, procedure, and/or
technical rules of evidence, such as are applied in criminal or civil court,
are not used in Code proceedings.
k. The appellate panel shall deliberate in private and decisions of the
appellate panel shall be by majority vote.
4. Appellate Decision
The appellate panel may uphold the hearing panel's decision, alter the sanction,
or set the decision aside and return the case to the Honor Board for a new
hearing. This decision shall be communicated in writing to the Dean of the
Newcomb-Tulane College and the presiding officer of the Honor Board hearing
panel that originally heard the case within one (1) working day. The Dean or
designate shall inform the student of the decision within (3) working days of
receipt of notification by the chair. If the decision is made to uphold the original
decision and sanction, the matter shall be considered final and binding upon all
All printed material distributed during the appellate hearing shall be collected by
the chair who shall deposit one copy of the printed materials and tape recording
in the files of the Dean. A copy of the report of the appellate panel and the action
of the Dean shall be included in the records of the Honor Board.
6. Attending Classes During the Appellate Processes
Students may continue to attend classes during the appeal process. In the most
serious cases, involving expulsion from the University, if the original verdict is
upheld under appeal, then no academic credit can be earned for the semester in
which the student was notified by the Dean of the expulsion, nor for any further
semester into which the appeal process might continue. If the decision to expel
the student is upheld, he or she will be eligible for a tuition refund only for the
semester(s) during which the appeal was ongoing.
7. Students Exonerated
Students exonerated as the result of the appeal process would have the original
Honor Code verdict removed from his or her college record and any institutional
financial aid that had been withdrawn as a result of the conviction retroactively
AMENDMENTS AND REVISIONS
These regulations may be amended or revised with the approval of the Undergraduate
Student Government Association and the faculty of Newcomb-Tulane College.
ACKNOWLEDGING SOURCES IN ACADEMIC WORK
The Code of Academic Conduct of Newcomb-Tulane College defi nes plagiarism
as unacknowledged or falsely acknowledged presentation of another person’s
ideas, expressions, or original research as one’s own work. Such use is defi ned as
plagiarism regardless of the intent of the student.
Students may, at times, be unsure of exactly what constitutes appropriate
acknowledgement, particularly during their fi rst years at the University, or when
taking courses in disciplines outside of their major area of study. The purpose of
this document is to offer several principles and rules that students should use to
determine when and how to cite sources for their work.
Principles to Follow When Citing Sources
Two basic principles should be followed when composing an original product:
(1) when giving facts, fi gures, dates or other information which are not general
knowledge among educated people, refer to the source of the information
either in the text itself or by means of a footnote;
(2) when composing material that is to be submitted as your own work,
clearly acknowledge any condensation or paraphrase of another’s ideas or
Information and ideas may come from several sources; it is in the act of putting
those ideas and facts together in new ways, or interpreting or analyzing them
differently, that an original work is produced.
Specifi c Rules for Citing Sources2
Several rules regarding citation of sources follow from the two principles above.
1. Cite sources for all direct quotations. There are no exceptions to this
rule. All direct quotations must be clearly attributed to the original source.
2. Cite sources from which you paraphrase or summarize facts or ideas.
This rule helps to avoid a common form of plagiarism: not only paraphrasing an
unacknowledged source’s idea(s), but also literally adopting (“lifting”) certain
specifi c phrases or stylistic expressions without placing quotation marks around
them and explicitly acknowledging their source. When paraphrasing a source
in your work, organize your summary or paraphrase in your own distinctive
manner; make it a natural part of your own argument and use your own words
and sentences. Most importantly, properly credit the source of each summary or
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